Chrome 49低版本或者其他浏览器访问HTTP2网站出现ERR_SPDY_INADEQUATE_TRANSPORT_SECURITY

问题跟我想的一样,是因为加密的方式被拒绝导致的

解决方式,在nginx.conf中设置

ssl_protocols               TLSv1 TLSv1.1 TLSv1.2;
ssl_ciphers                 EECDH+CHACHA20:EECDH+CHACHA20-draft:EECDH+AES128:RSA+AES128:EECDH+AES256:RSA+AES256:EECDH+3DES:RSA+3DES:!MD5;
ssl_prefer_server_ciphers   on;

这个是CloudFlare 使用的配置

参考下面的文章

https://imququ.com/post/why-tls-handshake-failed-with-http2-enabled.html

Ubuntu通过gitolite快速部署git server并开启master分支网站代码自动部署

安装git和gitolite

首先,通过下面的命令安装git和gitolite

apt-get install git-core
apt-get install gitolite

添加git用户组

adduser --system --group --shell /bin/bash --disabled-password git

配置密钥

接下来在本地机器生成ssh密钥,使用下面的命令

ssh-keygen -t rsa -C "[email protected]"

当然,如果你想为你的gitolite分配单独的密钥,可以使用下面的命令(生成名为git-admin的密钥)

ssh-keygen -C "[email protected]" -f ~/.ssh/git-admin

如果你使用了单独分配的密钥,你需要配置你的git在连接指定域名时使用不同的密钥,比如我们这里gitolite的管理域名是admin.xxx.com 。我们在刚才的.ssh文件夹新建config 文件(没有扩展名),内容如下

Host admin.xxx.com
	IdentityFile ~/.ssh/git-admin

这样就可以在连接admin.xxx.com的时候使用git-admin这组密钥了

初始化gitolite

下一步,将你的ssh公钥上传到服务器的某个位置,比如/tmp/git-admin.pub

然后切换到git用户,使用这个公钥初始化gitolite

su - git 
gl-setup /tmp/git-admin.pub

然后在持有私钥的机器管理gitolite即可,下面是clone命令,注意修改ip地址

git clone [email protected]_server_IP_address:gitolite-admin

关于gitolite的官方文档在这里:http://gitolite.com/gitolite/gitolite.html

自动部署

然后关于配置自动部署,首先我需要部署的网站目录权限为www-data:www-data

我把git用户添加到了www-data组中,通过后面权限设置为770保证网站和git都有足够的权限操作文件。使用下面的命令

usermod -a -G www-data git

然后网站目录,比如创建/home/nginx/xxx ,我们要把这个目录的用户组改成www-data并给予770权限,这样以后我们的git用户才能操作

然后我们切换到git用户,在/home/nginx/xxx 目录克隆本地库,使用下面的命令。注意clone后面最后有一个参数.

su - git
git clone ~/repositories/xxx.git .

这样网站目录就初始化完成了,我们继续下面的操作(还是git用户的身份)

钩子文件创建在项目库的hooks文件夹~/repositories/xxx.git/hooks ,新建post-receive 文件,复制粘贴下面的内容,最后别忘了给予本脚本执行权限。就可以退出git用户身份了

#!/bin/bash

while read oldrev newrev ref
do
	branch=`echo $ref | cut -d/ -f3`
	echo "--- Current branch is : "$branch	
	if [ "master" == "$branch" ]; then
		unset GIT_DIR
		NowPath=`pwd`
		echo "--- Now path is :"$NowPath
		DeployPath="/home/nginx/xxx"
		echo "--- Deploy path is :"$DeployPath
		cd $DeployPath
		echo "--- Go to deploy path"
		git add -A && git fetch origin && git reset --hard origin/master
		chmod -f -R 770 *
		chown -f -R git:www-data *
		echo "--- Deploy done"
		cd $NowPath
		echo "--- Fine"
	fi
done
exit 0

解释一下:

首先我们循环读取所有push的请求,当发现是push到master(也就是我们的部署分支)时,触发部署脚本,首先要清楚GIT_DIR环境变量,这样才能切换工作目录。然后我们切换到nginx的网站目录,使用git add -A && git fetch origin && git reset –hard origin/master 强制清除本地变化并更新到远程master分支。如果有网站自动生成的文件(比如用户上传的附件目录)不想被清空的,别忘了要写在.gitignore 文件里。当然网站生成的文件请确保权限在770以上,否则可能会导致git无权操作。在更新完远程master分支的代码后,更新文件权限为770,并将所有者改成www-data组(chmod使用末尾的*可以确保不会修改网站目录下.git这个隐藏目录内部的权限,同时-f用来屏蔽错误信息)

 

在编写本篇文章的时候感谢下面这位非常热心的博主解答我好多问题
https://argcv.com/articles/2078.c

Nginx对新版本PHP7.0.11关于PATH_INFO问题的修正

从这个版本以后,使用下面的配置使得Nginx支持ThinkPHP

server {
	listen		80;
	server_name	xxx.dev.onlyke.com;
	index		index.html index.htm index.php;
	root		/home/nginx/xxx;
	
	location ~ .*\.(gif|jpg|jpeg|png|bmp|ico|webp)$
	{
		expires 30d;
	}
	location ~ .*\.(woff|ttf|svg|otf|eot)$
	{
		expires 180d;
	}
	location ~ .*\.(js|css)?$
	{
		expires 12h;
	}
	location /
	{
		if (!-e $request_filename) { 
			rewrite ^(.*)$ /index.php/$1 last;
			break;
		}
	}
	location ~ \.php($|/)
	{
		fastcgi_pass unix:/run/php/php7.0-fpm.sock;
		fastcgi_index index.php;
		fastcgi_param SCRIPT_FILENAME  $document_root$fastcgi_script_name;
		fastcgi_param PATH_INFO $fastcgi_script_name;
		include	fastcgi_params;
	}
}

 

Ubuntu 配置Node.js+Nginx+PHP+MySQL最新版本

配置环境

#有的vps需要解决php源乱码的问题
sudo apt-get install -y language-pack-en-base
vi /etc/profile
export LANG=en_US.UTF-8
export LC_ALL=en_US.UTF-8
source /etc/profile
#解决php源乱码的问题 ending

#安装add-apt-repository
apt-get install software-properties-common

#安装nodejs源
curl -sL https://deb.nodesource.com/setup_6.x | sudo -E bash -

#新版本Ubuntu16.04默认支持openssl 1.0.2h
add-apt-repository ppa:nginx/stable

#老版本Ubuntu 14.04建议使用 PPA for NGINX with HTTP/2 on Ubuntu 12.04 LTS and higher,使用下面的源可以同时升级openssl,可以开启http2
#https://launchpad.net/~ondrej/+archive/ubuntu/nginx/
add-apt-repository ppa:ondrej/nginx

#下面安装php7 mysql5.7源
add-apt-repository ppa:ondrej/php
add-apt-repository ppa:ondrej/mysql-5.7

apt-get update
apt-get install nodejs openssl nginx mysql-server php7.3 php7.3-gd php7.3-mbstring php7.3-xml php7.3-zip php7.3-curl php7.3-fpm php7.3-mysql php7.3-bcmath php7.3-dev

#查看openssl版本
openssl version

nginx.conf配置

user www-data;
worker_processes auto;
pid /run/nginx.pid;
include /etc/nginx/modules-enabled/*.conf;

events {
	worker_connections 768;
	# multi_accept on;
}

http {

	##
	# Basic Settings
	##

	sendfile on;
	tcp_nopush on;
	tcp_nodelay on;
	keepalive_timeout 65;
	types_hash_max_size 2048;
	# server_tokens off;

	# server_names_hash_bucket_size 64;
	# server_name_in_redirect off;

	include /etc/nginx/mime.types;
	default_type application/octet-stream;

	##
	# SSL Settings
	##

	ssl_protocols               TLSv1 TLSv1.1 TLSv1.2;
	ssl_ciphers                 EECDH+CHACHA20:EECDH+CHACHA20-draft:EECDH+AES128:RSA+AES128:EECDH+AES256:RSA+AES256:EECDH+3DES:RSA+3DES:!MD5;
	ssl_prefer_server_ciphers   on;

	client_max_body_size 2m;

	##
	# Logging Settings
	##

	access_log /var/log/nginx/access.log;
	error_log /var/log/nginx/error.log;

	##
	# Gzip Settings
	##

	gzip on;
	gzip_disable "msie6";
	gzip_min_length 1k;
	gzip_buffers 4 16k;
	gzip_comp_level 2;
	gzip_types text/plain application/javascript application/x-javascript text/css application/xml text/javascript application/x-httpd-php image/jpeg image/gif image/png font/ttf font/otf image/svg+xml;
	gzip_vary on;

	##
	# Virtual Host Configs
	##

	include /etc/nginx/conf.d/*.conf;
	include /etc/nginx/sites-enabled/*;
}


#mail {
#	# See sample authentication script at:
#	# http://wiki.nginx.org/ImapAuthenticateWithApachePhpScript
# 
#	# auth_http localhost/auth.php;
#	# pop3_capabilities "TOP" "USER";
#	# imap_capabilities "IMAP4rev1" "UIDPLUS";
# 
#	server {
#		listen     localhost:110;
#		protocol   pop3;
#		proxy      on;
#	}
# 
#	server {
#		listen     localhost:143;
#		protocol   imap;
#		proxy      on;
#	}
#}

默认服务器,ip返回403配置

server_tokens off;
proxy_hide_header X-Powered-By;


server {
	listen 80 default_server;
	server_name _;
	return      403;
}

server {
	listen 443 ssl http2 default_server;
	server_name _;
	ssl			on;
	ssl_certificate		/etc/letsencrypt/live/xxx/fullchain.pem;
	ssl_certificate_key	/etc/letsencrypt/live/xxx/privkey.pem;
	return 403;
}

fastcgi_params限制PHP脚本执行目录

#PHP Prohibit cross-Hosting
fastcgi_param  PHP_VALUE  "open_basedir=$document_root:/tmp/";

纯静态配置

server {
	listen		80;
	server_name	xxxx;
	root		/home/nginx/xxxx;
	index		index.html index.htm index.php;
	location ~ .*\.(gif|jpg|jpeg|png|bmp)$
	{
		expires 30d;
	}
	location ~ .*\.(woff|ttf|svg)$
	{
		expires 180d;
	}
	location ~ .*\.(js|css)?$
	{
		expires 12h;
	}
	location /
	{
 	 	 try_files $uri $uri/ =404;
	}
}

PHP一般通用配置

server {
	listen			80;
	server_name		xxxx;
	index			index.php index.html index.htm;
	root			/home/nginx/xxx;
	
	location ~ .*\.(gif|jpg|jpeg|png|bmp)$
	{
		expires 30d;
	}
	location ~ .*\.(woff|ttf|svg)$
	{
		expires 180d;
	}
	location ~ .*\.(js|css)?$
	{
		expires 12h;
	}
	location ~ \.php($|/)
	{
		try_files $uri = 404;
		fastcgi_pass unix:/run/php/php7.0-fpm.sock;
		fastcgi_index index.php;
		fastcgi_param SCRIPT_FILENAME $document_root$fastcgi_script_name;
		include fastcgi_params;
	}
}

开启fix_pathinfo(一般默认已开启)

#确认php.ini中的如下配置,其实默认已经为1,当框架出现问题时可以来检查一下
cgi.fix_pathinfo = 1

PHP通用框架配置

server {
	listen		80;
	server_name	xxxx;
	index		index.html index.htm index.php;
	root		/home/nginx/xxxx;
	
	location ~ .*\.(gif|jpg|jpeg|png|bmp|ico|webp)$
	{
		expires 30d;
	}
	location ~ .*\.(woff|ttf|svg|otf|eot)$
	{
		expires 180d;
	}
	location ~ .*\.(js|css)?$
	{
		expires 12h;
	}
	location ^~ /.svn
	{
		deny all;
	}
	location ^~ /.git
	{
		deny all;
	}
	location /
	{
		if (!-e $request_filename) { 
			rewrite ^(.*)$ /index.php/$1 last;
			break;
		}
	}
	location ~ \.php($|/)
	{
		fastcgi_split_path_info ^((?U).+.php)(/?.+)$;
		fastcgi_param PATH_INFO $fastcgi_path_info;
		fastcgi_pass unix:/run/php/php7.0-fpm.sock;
		fastcgi_param SCRIPT_FILENAME  $document_root$fastcgi_script_name;
		include	fastcgi_params;
	}
}

SSL+HTTP2的PHP框架配置

server {
	listen				443 ssl http2;
	server_name			xxx;
	index				index.html index.htm index.php;
	root				/home/nginx/xxx;

	ssl_session_cache		shared:SSL:10m;
	ssl_session_timeout		60m;

	ssl_session_tickets		on;

	ssl_certificate			/etc/letsencrypt/live/xxx/fullchain.pem;
	ssl_certificate_key		/etc/letsencrypt/live/xxx/privkey.pem;

	location ~ .*\.(gif|jpg|jpeg|png|bmp|ico|webp)$
	{
		expires 30d;
	}
	location ~ .*\.(woff|ttf|svg|otf|eot)$
	{
		expires 180d;
	}
	location ~ .*\.(js|css)?$
	{
		expires 12h;
	}
	location ^~ /.svn
	{
		deny all;
	}
	location ^~ /.git
	{
		deny all;
	}
	location /
	{
		if (!-e $request_filename) { 
			rewrite ^(.*)$ /index.php/$1 last;
			break;
		}
	}
	location ~ \.php($|/)
	{
		fastcgi_split_path_info ^((?U).+.php)(/?.+)$;
		fastcgi_param PATH_INFO $fastcgi_path_info;
		fastcgi_pass unix:/run/php/php7.0-fpm.sock;
		fastcgi_param SCRIPT_FILENAME  $document_root$fastcgi_script_name;
		include	fastcgi_params;
	}
}

 

Nginx的sites-available一键启动站点脚本,仿照Apache的a2ensite

在Ubuntu的Nginx发行版中,存在sites-available和sites-enable这两个目录,启用站点的方式是创建符号链接从sites-available到sites-enable,在Apache中,我们有a2ensite命令来很轻松的完成这件事情。在Nginx中没有这个脚本,所以我们可以自己编写一个。

/usr/local/sbin 中创建文件nginx_modsite,代码如下,别忘了给执行权限

#!/bin/bash

##
#  File:
#    nginx_modsite
#  Description:
#    Provides a basic script to automate enabling and disabling websites found
#    in the default configuration directories:
#      /etc/nginx/sites-available and /etc/nginx/sites-enabled
#    For easy access to this script, copy it into the directory:
#      /usr/local/sbin
#    Run this script without any arguments or with -h or --help to see a basic
#    help dialog displaying all options.
##

# Copyright (C) 2010 Michael Lustfield <[email protected]>

# Redistribution and use in source and binary forms, with or without
# modification, are permitted provided that the following conditions
# are met:
# 1. Redistributions of source code must retain the above copyright
#    notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer.
# 2. Redistributions in binary form must reproduce the above copyright
#    notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer in the
#    documentation and/or other materials provided with the distribution.
#
# THIS SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED BY AUTHOR AND CONTRIBUTORS ``AS IS'' AND
# ANY EXPRESS OR IMPLIED WARRANTIES, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE
# IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE
# ARE DISCLAIMED.  IN NO EVENT SHALL AUTHOR OR CONTRIBUTORS BE LIABLE
# FOR ANY DIRECT, INDIRECT, INCIDENTAL, SPECIAL, EXEMPLARY, OR CONSEQUENTIAL
# DAMAGES (INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, PROCUREMENT OF SUBSTITUTE GOODS
# OR SERVICES; LOSS OF USE, DATA, OR PROFITS; OR BUSINESS INTERRUPTION)
# HOWEVER CAUSED AND ON ANY THEORY OF LIABILITY, WHETHER IN CONTRACT, STRICT
# LIABILITY, OR TORT (INCLUDING NEGLIGENCE OR OTHERWISE) ARISING IN ANY WAY
# OUT OF THE USE OF THIS SOFTWARE, EVEN IF ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF
# SUCH DAMAGE.

##
# Default Settings
##

NGINX_CONF_FILE="$(awk -F= -v RS=' ' '/conf-path/ {print $2}' <<< $(nginx -V 2>&1))"
NGINX_CONF_DIR="${NGINX_CONF_FILE%/*}"
NGINX_SITES_AVAILABLE="$NGINX_CONF_DIR/sites-available"
NGINX_SITES_ENABLED="$NGINX_CONF_DIR/sites-enabled"
SELECTED_SITE="$2"

##
# Script Functions
##

ngx_enable_site() {
    [[ ! "$SELECTED_SITE" ]] &&
        ngx_select_site "not_enabled"

    [[ ! -e "$NGINX_SITES_AVAILABLE/$SELECTED_SITE" ]] && 
        ngx_error "Site does not appear to exist."
    [[ -e "$NGINX_SITES_ENABLED/$SELECTED_SITE" ]] &&
        ngx_error "Site appears to already be enabled"

    ln -sf "$NGINX_SITES_AVAILABLE/$SELECTED_SITE" -T "$NGINX_SITES_ENABLED/$SELECTED_SITE"
    ngx_reload
}

ngx_disable_site() {
    [[ ! "$SELECTED_SITE" ]] &&
        ngx_select_site "is_enabled"

    [[ ! -e "$NGINX_SITES_AVAILABLE/$SELECTED_SITE" ]] &&
        ngx_error "Site does not appear to be \'available\'. - Not Removing"
    [[ ! -e "$NGINX_SITES_ENABLED/$SELECTED_SITE" ]] &&
        ngx_error "Site does not appear to be enabled."

    rm -f "$NGINX_SITES_ENABLED/$SELECTED_SITE"
    ngx_reload
}

ngx_list_site() {
    echo "Available sites:"
    ngx_sites "available"
    echo "Enabled Sites"
    ngx_sites "enabled"
}

##
# Helper Functions
##

ngx_select_site() {
    sites_avail=($NGINX_SITES_AVAILABLE/*)
    sa="${sites_avail[@]##*/}"
    sites_en=($NGINX_SITES_ENABLED/*)
    se="${sites_en[@]##*/}"

    case "$1" in
        not_enabled) sites=$(comm -13 <(printf "%s\n" $se) <(printf "%s\n" $sa));;
        is_enabled) sites=$(comm -12 <(printf "%s\n" $se) <(printf "%s\n" $sa));;
    esac

    ngx_prompt "$sites"
}

ngx_prompt() {
    sites=($1)
    i=0

    echo "SELECT A WEBSITE:"
    for site in ${sites[@]}; do
        echo -e "$i:\t${sites[$i]}"
        ((i++))
    done

    read -p "Enter number for website: " i
    SELECTED_SITE="${sites[$i]}"
}

ngx_sites() {
    case "$1" in
        available) dir="$NGINX_SITES_AVAILABLE";;
        enabled) dir="$NGINX_SITES_ENABLED";;
    esac

    for file in $dir/*; do
        echo -e "\t${file#*$dir/}"
    done
}

ngx_reload() {
    read -p "Would you like to reload the Nginx configuration now? (Y/n) " reload
    [[ "$reload" != "n" && "$reload" != "N" ]] && invoke-rc.d nginx reload
}

ngx_error() {
    echo -e "${0##*/}: ERROR: $1"
    [[ "$2" ]] && ngx_help
    exit 1
}

ngx_help() {
    echo "Usage: ${0##*/} [options]"
    echo "Options:"
    echo -e "\t<-e|--enable> <site>\tEnable site"
    echo -e "\t<-d|--disable> <site>\tDisable site"
    echo -e "\t<-l|--list>\t\tList sites"
    echo -e "\t<-h|--help>\t\tDisplay help"
    echo -e "\n\tIf <site> is left out a selection of options will be presented."
    echo -e "\tIt is assumed you are using the default sites-enabled and"
    echo -e "\tsites-disabled located at $NGINX_CONF_DIR."
}

##
# Core Piece
##

case "$1" in
    -e|--enable)    ngx_enable_site;;
    -d|--disable)   ngx_disable_site;;
    -l|--list)  ngx_list_site;;
    -h|--help)  ngx_help;;
    *)      ngx_error "No Options Selected" 1; ngx_help;;
esac

使用方法:

  1. 显示当前站点列表
    sudo nginx_modsite -l
  2. 启用站点test_website
    sudo nginx_modsite -e test_website
  3. 关闭站点test_website
    sudo nginx_modsite -d test_website

 

引用:http://serverfault.com/questions/424452/nginx-enable-site-command

Nginx开启Gzip

操作方法

打开nginx,conf,在http { 内添加如下内容

gzip  on;
gzip_min_length 1k;
gzip_buffers 4 16k;
gzip_comp_level 2;
gzip_types text/plain application/javascript application/x-javascript text/css application/xml text/javascript application/x-httpd-php image/jpeg image/gif image/png font/ttf font/otf image/svg+xml;
gzip_vary on;

参数讲解

gzip

决定是否开启gzip模块
Param: on|off
Example: gzip on; 

gzip_buffers

设置gzip申请内存的大小,其作用是按块大小的倍数申请内存空间
Param1: int
Param2: int(k) 后面单位是k
Example: gzip_buffers 4 8k;

gzip_comp_level

设置gzip压缩等级,等级越底压缩速度越快文件压缩比越小,反之速度越慢文件压缩比越大
Param: 1-9
Example: gzip_com_level 1; 

gzip_min_length

当返回内容大于此值时才会使用gzip进行压缩,以K为单位,当值为0时,所有页面都进行压缩
Param: int
Example: gzip_min_length 1000; 

gzip_http_version

用于识别http协议的版本,早期的浏览器不支持gzip压缩,用户会看到乱码,所以为了支持前期版本加了此选项,目前此项基本可以忽略
Param: 1.0|1.1
Example: gzip_http_version 1.0 

gzip_proxied

Nginx做为反向代理的时候启用,

gzip_types

设置需要压缩的MIME类型,非设置值不进行压缩